Monday, May 25, 2020
Overview/Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"The major goals of health promotion are to help people of all ages stay healthy, optimize health in cases of chronic disease or disability, and create healthy environmentsÃ¢â¬ (Pender et al., 2015). This health promotion project is designed to identify and reduce the risk factors associated with several illnesses and disease processes. This project will focus on changing lifestyle behaviors and providing up to date education for the patient to make the best informed decision regarding her environment, health behaviors, and developing a support system with her primary care physician. This patient at present, has several diagnoses of severe illnesses. The purpose of this health promotion project will be to help the patient reduce her risk of mortality due to uncontrolled diseases including diabetes, and hypertension. The lifestyle and dietary modifications will be based on Healthy People 2020 objectives, and the Pender Health Promotion model will be used throughout this process. A detailed literature review will be performed to provide rationale for evidence based interventions provided to the patient. Identification of Patient, Problems, Diagnoses, Risk Factors and Behavioral Choices N.A is a 73 year old Caucasian female who presented to the clinic to establish new patient care. She has a former primary care giver in another town, but wanted a physician closer to her home. She does have a health history that includes Diabetes mellitus type II that wasShow MoreRelatedHealth Education And Health Care863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHealth education encompasses a team of many different providers in a variety of settings. It has a diverse and ever changing role in health care, communities, and schools (Glanz, 2008, p. 13). The health care team works to provide education for patients and also their families. Physician Assistants play a major role in the prevention and detection of disease. With the encouragement to live a healthy lifestyle and the patient/provider discussions about decision making to improve overall health,Read MoreEssay on Health Promotion1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHealth promotion and teaching are important tools for nursing. By promoting health and heal th teaching, nurses can help lay the foundation for a healthier future. Major Concepts and Definitions BeliefÃâ"a statement of sense, declared or implied, that is intellectually and/or emotionally accepted as true by a person or group. AttitudeÃâ"a relatively constant feeling, predisposition, or a set of beliefs that is directed toward an object, a person, or a situation. ValueÃâ"a preferenceRead MoreHealth Promotion Model And Mid Range Theory Essay1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPenderÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Promotion Model (HPM) and Mid-Range Theory. These theories differ in terms of the theoristsÃ¢â¬â¢ backgrounds and their experiences, description of theory, assumptions, and application in nursing practice. Health Promotion Model and Mid-Range Theory The Health Promotion Model was developed by Dr. Nola J. Pender and is used globally for nursing education, research, and practice. This theory helps nursing professionals and practitioners to understand the main determinants of health behaviorsRead More Health Promotion and Teaching as Tools for Nursing Essay1325 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLaying the Foundation for a Healthier Future Health promotion and teaching are important tools for nursing. By promoting health and health teaching, nurses can help lay the foundation for a healthier future. Major Concepts and Definitions BeliefÃ¢â¬âa statement of sense, declared or implied, that is intellectually and/or emotionally accepted as true by a person or group. AttitudeÃ¢â¬âa relatively constant feeling, predisposition, or a set of beliefs that is directedRead MoreReview of a Nursing Journal on an EBP Process: Together with his colleagues at the University of1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesspreading evidence-based practices that focus on health promotion. The authors argued that the basis for widespread adoption of evidence-based health promotion practices is mainly dependent on developing and evaluating effective dissemination approaches. Consequently, they created a practical framework based on existing literature on dissemination and their experiences in conducting such practices. The framework is commonly known as the Health Promotion Research Center (HPRC) framework, which was developedRead MoreEssay on Health Promotion1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Health is defined as a state of physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmityÃ¢â¬ (WHO). Like wise health promotion is the process of increasing the functional capacity of all people hence promote the sense of well-being. In order to accomplish this goal all health care professionals have to work hard by submitting themselves to their patients and community as a whole. Thus globalize health promotion should be the ultimate mission for all health care teamRead MoreThe Grand Nursing Theory Chosen By The Future Apn Is Roy s Model Of Adaptation943 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesperson as man, identifying man as a biopsychosocial being who received a nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s services. Roy identified the environment as any and all focal, contextual, and residual stimuli (1970). She addressed the concept of health as an aspect of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s life, lying somewhere along the health-sickness continuum (Roy, 1971). In regards to the concept of nursing, Roy identified nursing as a duty that helps and encourages manÃ¢â¬â¢s response to environmental stimuli (1970). The additional concept, adaptation, wasRead MoreEvaluation Of The Self Evaluation783 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesas provide directions for improvements. Self-evaluation serves as a reflection of my productivity in a given year, accomp lishments and past mistakes. Self-evaluation has helped me to identify what I need to be successful in my profession and future goals. The main focus of self-appraisals should be positive thus promote confidence, motivation, and dedications. Leddy Healthiness Scale found in the Appendix section of her 2006 book is my healthiness tool for this project. Utilization of LeddyÃ¢â¬â¢s ModelRead MoreObesity As A Risk Factor For Cardiac Health844 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesall had the same results to their surveys and data collections and the same conclusion; obesity is a major problem in American society and it leads to multiple health issues. Data shows that obesity is the cause of chronic disease risk, morbidity, high health care costs and social costs (Nestle Jacobson 2000). After the American society has identify obesity as a risk factor for cardiac health, many federal agencies has come up with guidelines, educating American people how to reduce their calorieRead MoreHealth Promotion And Disease Prevention1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Health promotion is an attempt to improve the health status of an individual or community, and is concerned with the prevention of disease, though this is not its only purpose, as health is not merely the absence of diseaseÃ¢â¬ ( Maben, Clark, 1995, p. 1163). Health promotion is commonly used t erm in health care world, and in current society the promotion of health has greater significance, especially with the rise in consumerism. Health promotion is a vital concept for nursing, symbolizing notions
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 648 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/04/10 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Fahrenheit 451 Essay Ray Bradbury Essay Did you like this example? Thesis: In science fiction novel Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury conveys the idea that the suppression of opinion can lead to corruption in society, shown when Guy Montag conflicts with the society and himself. Montag, the stray of the pack, conflicts with the society by going against the government with his promotion of knowledge/reading and rebelling the federation, to further support the main idea that limiting the freedom of opinion can lead to societal corruption. Faber had met up with Guy Montag and told him that, We do need knowledge. Books are to remind (Bradbury 86). Faber agrees with Guy, acknowledging his unique curiosity and advocacy for the citizens of this dystopian society, furthermore obtaining the right of knowledge for those who cannot discern the reason behind knowledge like Guy does. Faber and Guy are both acknowledging reading, and both understand why society must read; their endorsement of intelligence goes against civilization, whose societal values and beliefs are based on the foundation of limiting reading, to prevent corruption within the society. By utilizing their prohibited curiosity, Guy and Faber both defy society and the one idea it holds, disunifying all of its structure and values. While Guy opposed society by pure thinking, he had also gone against the products of society when he, shot one continuous pulse of liquid fire on [Beatty] (Bradbury 119). Guy has just killed Beatty, using this murder as his own unique form of rebelling society and the people that were manipulated for societys irrational beliefs. By killing Beatty, it was his unintentional form of revolting against the government because Beatty, whos a fellow fireman, was only a commodity that came out of the affect in societys attempt to keep an orderly fashion; the murder of firemen, created by the government, inadvertently goes against it which also disunifies the structure of society. Montag, an individual who stands out of the norm for society, conflicts with the environment around him and goes out of what they strive to be, rather, he uses his own methods of revolting to advocate for his own beliefs that others may or may not agree with, which happens to be explicitly prohibited in the society. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Societal Corruption in Fahrenheit 451" essay for you Create order In the midst of Montag conflicting with society, he also opposes himself through his doubt and confusion, questioning everything that he has led up to in life, leading to corruption between himself and his thoughts. After having fought with Mildred, Montag realizes that his fate as a fireman was never chosen by him, rather, Was I given a choice? My grandfather and father were firemen. In my sleep, I ran after them (Bradbury 49). Montag starts to begin doubting himself and his decisions, including becoming a fireman, conflicting with himself and getting second thoughts. The act of doubting himself leads to his own corruption, which also effects towards the society because his own doubt is a form of knowledge and opinion; everything the society is trying to prevent. Although Montag begins to doubt his abilities, his doubt comes with confusion and questioning when, Montag hesitated. Was-was it always like this? Our work? (Bradbury 34). Montag has always had a longing to understand why b ooks werent allowed and is not able to understand this longing until getting bewildered by how long the world has continued to disobey books. His confusion right now connects to the constant longing of an explanation towards why knowledge is limited in his society, and only motivates him more to find the true meaning behind books and the reason why they are limited. Montags confusion only allows for himself to be corrupted because, yet again, his baffled thoughts are a form of knowledge and information; although he may be confused as to who had allowed for intelligence to fade into darkness, his confusion is the fuel to light the flame within this darkness to galvanize him into realizing the corruption that has already occurred within society.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
During the decade of the eighties in El Salvador, the government would armed forces and recruit children that are approximately twelve years old out of their schools. Since Chava is only eleven years old, he still has a year of innocence, which means a year before he is conscripted to fight against the rebels of Farabundo MarÃ i National Liberation Front (FMLN). ChavaÃ¢â¬â¢s life becomes at risk since it is a game of survival and he carries negative effects with violence. Although with the love of his mother and with a classmate, Chava finds the bravery to keep positive understandings and stay alert against time before he might get recruited. According to Yahaira Padilla, in Hermanas lejanas? Female Immigrant Subjectivities and the Politics ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This film was taken place before by Oscar Torres; the person who co-wrote the script was once situated before becoming a teenager. Torres wanted to parallel his ending when he landed to the United States at the same time when Chava left El Salvador. On the other hand, Luis Mandoki, a Mexican film director that enjoys putting real life situations in a movie. While reading Ã¢â¬Å"Re-membering the Nation: Gap and Reckoning within Biographical Accounts of Salvadoran Ãâ°migrÃ ©sÃ¢â¬ by Susan Bibler Coutin compares and contrast the narratives of after the Civil War in El Salvador. During those twelve years of war, majority of people were separated because of international emigration and violence (Coutin 2011). In contrast, Coutin argues to the audience that Central American minorities narrate their personal experience just to relink their historical events, just as Torres. There are many war films that can relate to Ã¢â¬Å"Voces InocentesÃ¢â¬ , but unfortunately it is rare that a twelve-year-old kid tells the story throughout his own experience. I guarantee that most people would not want to live around a Ã¢â¬ËbarrioÃ¢â¬â¢ that is around with death like the one in this film. On the other hand, Mandoki prefers to show the brutal that military soldiers would do at the time to the children; death and terror. The film tends to bring different tones such like having its humor once in a while and how
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation. Answer: Introduction: Cells need glucose for the formation of ATP. ATP is an active molecule in all body cells. The role of ATP is to initiate conformational changes in the cell. The conformational change allows cells to serve many functions like the movement of proteins, enzyme activation, making of proteins, and cell replication just to mention a few. In this case, cells need glucose in order to produce energy. Other than glucose, cells can produce energy from other sources like sugar, fats, proteins, and alcohol (Burmeister, Ayala, Smouse, Rocha Ayala, 2017). Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a stable internal environment based on the changes in the external environment. The maintenance is imperative in order to maintain metabolism. In this case, it is essential for the body to maintain the glucose in the blood by the use of the hormonal system. After there is an elevation of blood glucose, the level of glucose begins to rise because of the carbohydrates, which are digested and absorbed. The rise in glucose level is detected by the beta cells that will produce additional insulin (Stechemesser, Eder, Feldman, Strasser Zandanell, 2017). The insulin produced connects with the proteins in the liver, this leads to more protein channels opening to allow entry of more glucose to enter the blood cells. In addition, the insulin facilitates the enzyme to change glucose into glycogen for storage. The level of glucose in the blood is calculated in terms of milligrams per deciliter. Generally, if there is an imbalance in the level of glucose i n the blood, the pancreas will produce the required amount of insulin in order to bring the glucose to the required range (Soares, Pannu, Calton, Reid Hills, 2017). For a homeostasis, there is always some insulin being produced by the pancreas to meet the fluctuating glucose level in the blood. With an elevated glucose level, glucose will be too high in the body to be absorbed, the amount of insulin will spike in response to the increasing amount of glucose. The spike in insulin levels is to create a balance for glucose in the blood. In most cases, the spike happens too fast, which is almost simultaneous and falls when the amount of glucose falls. Therefore, when there is an elevation of glucose in the blood, the pancreas releases insulin, which brings a balance for intake into the cells (Mulvihill, Varin, Gladana, Baggio Bang, 2017). Getting sufficient vitamin D and calcium is vital for strong and dense bones. Other than building bones, calcium is responsible for a blood clot, muscle contract, and nerve functions. On the other hand, vitamin D is essential for the protection of bones and the absorption of calcium. Calcium can be found foods like dairy products, non- fat milk, cheese, greens, cereals, and bread. Similarly, vitamin D can be received from sunlight, foods, and supplements. Vitamin D can be found in foods like fatty fish, salmon, soy milk, and tuna. Both vitamin D and calcium are necessary for a healthy body (Wang, Wende, Campbell, Nie Balcom, 2017). The body needs sufficient Vitamin D for the absorption of calcium. Both calcium and vitamin D are vital for strong bones. A deficiency of vitamin D and calcium in the body can lead to health complications like rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. If these conditions are left untreated, they can lead to brittle bones, soft bones, muscle and bone pain, and general body weakness. In addition, deficiency of vitamin D and calcium can lead to osteoporosis, which is associated with a reduction in the bone density which will lead to a risk of bone fractures and falls (Dawson, Harris, Krall Dallal, 2017) References Burmeister, M. A., Ayala, J. E., Smouse, H., Landivar-Rocha, A., D. J., ... Ayala, J. E. (2017). The Hypothalamic Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Is Sufficient but Not Necessary for the Regulation of Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis in Mice.Diabetes,66(2), 372-384. Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S. S., Krall, E. A., Dallal, G. E. (2017). Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older.New England Journal of Medicine,337(10), 670-676. Mulvihill, E. E., Varin, E. M., Gladanac, B., J. R., Baggio, L. L., ... Bang, K. A. (2017). Cellular Sites and Mechanisms Linking Reduction of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity to Control of Incretin Hormone Action and Glucose Homeostasis.Cell Metabolism,25(1), 152-165. Soares, M. J., Pannu, P. K., Calton, E. K., Reid, C. M., Hills, A. P. (2017). Vitamin D status and calcium intake in systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome: An update on current evidence.Trends in Food Science Technology. Stechemesser, L., Eder, Feldman, A., Strasser, M., ... Zandanell, S. (2017). Metabolomic profiling identifies potential pathways involved in the interaction of iron homeostasis with glucose metabolism.Molecular Metabolism,6(1), 38-47. Wang, Y., Wactawski-Wende, J., Sucheston-Campbell K. M., Nie, J., ... Ochs-Balcom, H. M. (2017). The influence of genetic susceptibility and calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk.The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,105(4), 970-979.
Friday, April 10, 2020
The Kurds - A Nation Without a State Introduction Of all the ethnic groups in the world, the Kurds are one of the largest that has no state to call their own. According to historian William Westermann, "The Kurds can present a better claim to race purity...than any people which now inhabits Europe." (Bonner, p. 63, 1992) Over the past hundred years, the desire for an independent Kurdish state has created conflicts mainly with the Turkish and Iraqi populations in the areas where most of the Kurds live. This conflict has important geographical implications as well. The history of the Kurdish nation, the causes for these conflicts, and an analysis of the situation will be discussed in this paper. History of the Kurds The Kurds are a Sunni Muslim people living primarily in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. The 25 million Kurds have a distinct culture that is not at all like their Turkish, Persian, and Arabic neighbors (Hitchens, p. 36, 1992). It is this cultural difference between the groups that automatically creates the potential for conflict. Of the 25 million Kurds, approximately 10 million live in Turkey, four million in Iraq, five million in Iran, and a million in Syria, with the rest scattered throughout the rest of the world (Bonner, p. 46, 1992). The Kurds also have had a long history of conflict with these other ethnic groups in the Middle East, which we will now look at. The history of Kurds in the area actually began during ancient times. However, the desire for a Kurdish homeland did not begin until the early 1900's, around the time of World War I. In his Fourteen Points, President Woodrow Wilson promised the Kurds a sovereign state (Hitchens, p. 54, 1992). The formation of a Kurdish state was supposed to have been accomplished through the Treaty of Sevres in 1920 which said that the Kurds could have an independent state if they wanted one (Bonner, p. 46, 1992). With the formation of Turkey in 1923, Kemal Ataturk, the new Turkish President, threw out the treaty and denied the Kurds their own state. This was the beginning of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict. At about this same time, the Kurds attempted to establish a semi-independent state, and actually succeeded in forming the Kingdom of Kurdistan, which lasted from 1922-1924; later, in 1946, some of the Kurds established the Mahabad Republic, which lasted for only one year (Prince, p. 17, 1993). In 1924, Turkey even passed a law banning the use of the Kurdish language in public places. Another group of people to consider is the Kurds living in Iraq. Major conflict between the Kurds and Iraqis did not really begin until 1961, when a war broke out that lasted until 1970. Around this time, Saddam Hussein came to power in Iraq. In 1975, Hussein adopted a policy of eradicating the Kurds from his country. Over the next fifteen years, the Iraqi army bombed Kurdish villages, and poisoned the Kurds with cyanide and mustard gas (Hitchens, p. 46, 1992). It is estimated that during the 1980's, Iraqis destroyed some 5000 Kurdish villages (Prince, p. 22, 1993). From this point, we move into the recent history and current state of these conflicts between the Kurds and the Turks, and the Kurds against the Iraqis. Causes for Conflict The reasons for these conflicts have great relevance to geography. The areas of geography relating to these specific conflicts are a historical claim to territory on the part of the Kurds, cultural geography, economic geography, and political geography. These four areas of geography can best explain the reasons for these Kurdish conflicts. First, the Kurds have a valid historical claim to territory. They have lived in the area for over 2000 years. For this reason, they desire the establishment of a Kurdish homeland. Iraqis and Turks, while living in the area for a long period of time, cannot make a historical claim to that same area. The conflict arises, however, because the area happens to lie within the borders of Iraq and Turkey. Even though the Kurds claim is valid, the Turks and Iraqis have chosen to ignore it and have tried to wipe out the Kurds. Second, and probably most important,
Monday, March 9, 2020
Famous vs. Infamous Famous vs. Infamous Famous vs. Infamous By Maeve Maddox I have long bewailed the misuse of the word famous to apply to bad people, reminding readers that the word for widely known people of ill repute is infamous. Now IÃ¢â¬â¢ve discovered that not only is famous erroneously applied to gangsters and murderers, but now the word infamous is being flung about as if it meant noted or simply, known. The site that brought this latest misuse to my attention features a slideshow about male celebrities who are shorter than average. Each slide provides information under the following headings: Height Date of Birth Number of Children Infamous for One or two of the celebrities are Ã¢â¬Å"infamous forÃ¢â¬ cocaine use, but the information that appears under the Ã¢â¬Å"infamousÃ¢â¬ heading for the others is nothing to be ashamed of. Here are a few examples of the behavior labeled infamous on this site: was a dishwasher once was the son of scientists sometimes hides his hand in his pocket to conceal its trembling wears thick black horn-rimmed glasses worked in a beauty salon after high school was godfather to another celebrityÃ¢â¬â¢s children These acts hardly fit the OED definition of infamous: Of ill fame or repute; famed or notorious for badness of any kind; notoriously evil, wicked, or vile; held in infamy or public disgrace. Here, for example, are some infamous people noted for their infamous acts: Ivan the Terrible Jack the Ripper Pol Pot Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Josef Stalin Delphine LaLaurie Josef Mengele Tomas de Torquemada Actions that warrant the description of infamous include: burning people to death, performing surgical experiments on conscious children, blinding your architects, boiling your treasurerÃ¢â¬âthat kind of thing. The preoccupation with the celebrity of peopleÃ¢â¬âfamous or infamousÃ¢â¬âhas coined a new expression: Ã¢â¬Å"famous for being famous.Ã¢â¬ In the past, the usual way to acquire fame or notoriety was to excel at something, whether writing, acting, or governing. With the advent of self-generated publicity, some people manage to become a focus of public attention for nothing at all. Frequently cited examples of this type of non-fame are: the Kardashian sisters, Paris Hilton, Kato Kaelin, Heidi Montag, Kelly Osbourne, and Ivanka Trump. Here are some words other than famous or infamous that may be used to describe a well-known person: well-known prominent famed popular renowned noted eminent distinguished esteemed celebrated respected illustrious acclaimed great legendary lionized notorious Most of these words are applicable to people known for doing commendable things. The other kind of people are perhaps best ignored as much as possible. Famous and Infamous on Newspapers Monsanto to ditch its infamous name after sale to Bayer (www.theguardian.com) - Syrian Kurdish fighters have detained two British men infamous for their role in the Islamic StateÃ¢â¬â¢s imprisonment, torture and killing of Western hostages, according to Am (www.nytimes.com) on BroadwayÃ¢â¬â¢s least-discovered northern stretch.Broadway is arguably the most famous thoroughfare in the world (by one measure, 250 million hits on Google versus 6 million for the Champs-Ãâ°lysÃ ©es) (www.nytimes.com) Related posts: Ã¢â¬Å"Famous DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Apply to Murderers or GangstersÃ¢â¬ Video Recap Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Direct and Indirect ObjectsHyper and HypoA Yes-and-No Answer About Hyphenating Phrases
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Ylindrospermopsin Alkaloids - Research Paper Example CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The description of cylindrospermopsin alkaloids is such that they consist of three soluble water toxins that comprise of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) (1), 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (7-deoxy-CYN) (2) and also 7-epi-cylindrospermopsin (7-epi-CYN) (3). Researchers have signaled towards certain problems related to the toxicological characteristics of these natural compounds, their existence in water and which was followed by their removal. The structural features of these alkaloids are in fact extraordinary comprising of a sulfonated tricyclic guanidine linked to a uracil ring. The beginning of this analysis centers on the isolation of these innate products followed by the investigation into the environmental impact of cylindrospermopsin alkaloids contamination. (1) Figure 1. The cylindrospermopsin alkaloids of cylindrospermopsin (1),7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (2) and 7-epi-cylindrospermopsin (3). 1.1 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION Credited to Moore and his team usin g a combination of NMR and mass spetroscopy, the extraction of Cylindrospermopsin (1) took place in 1992 from the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. While 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (2) was discovered in 1999, owing to the purification of cylindrospermopsin which was performed on a regular basis. It was also concluded that the derivate of cylindrospermopsin could also exist in the form of a pair of tautomers because of the fact that the uracil ringÃ¢â¬â¢s vinylic proton was not identified during the application of the H NMR technique as shown in figure 2. However, as every sample of 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (2) was observed the incidence of the uracil group (4) was confirmed by examining the absorbance maximum (?max). Even... Credited to Moore and his team using a combination of NMR and mass spetroscopy, the extraction of Cylindrospermopsin (1) took place in 1992 from the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. While 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (2) was discovered in 1999, owing to the purification of cylindrospermopsin which was performed on a regular basis. It was also concluded that the derivate of cylindrospermopsin could also exist in the form of a pair of tautomers because of the fact that the uracil ringÃ¢â¬â¢s vinylic proton was not identified during the application of the H NMR technique as shown in figure 2. However, as every sample of 7-deoxy-cylindrospermopsin (2) was observed the incidence of the uracil group (4) was confirmed by examining the absorbance maximum (Ã »max). Even though, the measurement of approximate quantity was not possible, it was evident that as a mixture of compounds the natural material indeed existed. The discovery of the 7-epi-cylindrospermopsin took place in 20 02 and it was originally established that it was synthesized with Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. The approximation of cylindrospermopsinÃ¢â¬â¢s relative stereochemistry was made by considering the unusualtautomer enol presence of the uracil D ring. To explain the concept, uracil D as described in structure 6 is a intramolecularly hydrogen linked to a nitrogen terminus of the guanidine group. The NMR evidence was made to be the basis of the product correlation which understandably led the research participants to conclude that structure 7 was the most appropriate and relevant description of cylindrospermopsin (1).